The Great Wall of Beijing
The History of the Great Wall
The Great Wall is a symbol of China’s ancient civilization as well as a world famous , grand , splendid ancient construction wonders in human being history. It was constructed from the 7th century BC , called Spring and Autumn Period at that time.
the frequent wars between small kingdoms intensified in the Warring State Period, for the small kingdoms mainly are Qi , Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei and Qin States, they are know as “seven power states in the warring states period.” In order to safeguard their own territories against their neighbor’s invading. All the kingdoms follow Qi and Chu States , who had first built the high walls which were named “square wall” or ‘ square city” surrounding their own territories.
The three kingdoms of Qi, zhao and Yan located in the north of china, they built the wall on the strategic point and made full use of the terrains on their northern frontiers as defensive project. These high walls were the primitive prototype of present Great Wall and laid the foundation for the construction of later dynasties.
In221BC, Qinshihuang, who defeated other six kingdoms and established the first unified , centralized country in China and became the first feudal emperor of Qin dynasty. Why do many people say that Qinshihuangdi was the first emperor to build the Great Wall, actually he was not the first one to build , but it was the first time to name those sections of defensive walls as The Great Wall under his reign of Qin dynasty.
On one hand , he destroyed the walls that divided these small kingdoms , on the other hand, he ordered to link up the northern sections of the Great walls that were built by Qi ,Zhao and Yan States and put them together into one defensive project. So lots of sections of walls were linked up and expanded , finally it was extended into a Great Wall. This great project was took more than ten years , when it was finished , the total lenghth of the Great Wall was over 5,000 kilometers long, usually called “Wan li Chang Cheng “ in Chinese . “li”is the Chinese unit of measurement. Wan Li means ten thousand li . ever since then, the later dynasties built the Great Wall in their ways on the base of Qin Great Wall , this great project not end till Ming dynasty. it
Lasted more than two thousand years
Large-scale construction are concentrated in the Qin, Han and Ming dynasties.
The Han Great Wall was the longest one in Chinese history. It stretched to today Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, northwest of china. Not only did it guard off the Huns , but also protect the Silk Road. That’s why even today we can still see some remnants of the wall in Xinjing province.
Regarding the Great Wall in Ming dynasty, we should notice that Ming was the last dynasty to carry out large-scale construction project. Why ? Zhuyuanzhang, the founder of ming dynasty, who successfully led the rebellion and overthrew the Yuan Dynasty , became the first emperor of Ming dynasty. Although the last emperor of Yuan had been drove out of the city , but the remnants forces always launched frequent southwards attack to Ming Court, besides, there is another new threat from a newly raised ethnic tribe, named Nuzhen Tribe,it is Manchu, in northeast of china. Considering these remnent forces and new tribes threats, Zhuyuanzhang paid much attention to the Great wall constructions. He ordered his general Xuda to build the Juyong Pass and many other ones with strategic importance.
The whole project of Ming Great Wall took more than 200 years, the Great Wall we see today mainly built in Ming.
The last dynasty is Qing , built by Manchu, Qing emperors didn’t continue this project, instead of the defensive project , the emperors adopted a new harmonious policy, establish good relations with ethnic neighbors, the Summer Resort in Chengde , Hebei province is a good example to make good control over Mon golian and Tibetans to ensure a peaceful boundary.